Free Essay: Poverty has been a serious and a long-lasting issue in India. It is worth mentioning that poverty line will raise the percentage of poor people to.
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- Poverty in India Essay
There is little that is original in this essay. In such a view of the matter, everybody has a stake in issues that are crucial to the well-being of a society and its economy.
In the process of such elaboration, it may be that the points I make are very straightforward and trivially true. If so, my defence must be that it is a lesser vice to be obviously right than to be obviously wrong. In this essay, I shall deal largely only with the identification exercise. What does one ordinarily understand by the term poverty line? See, for example, the attempt by Jayaraj and Subramanian to derive a poverty line for the state of Tamil Nadu 3.
There is therefore a problem of the appropriate use of language involved here. It is obvious that the extent of poverty will rise as the poverty line rises. The headcount ratio, or proportion of the population in poverty, is the most widely employed numerical indicator of poverty. This is poverty-reduction through definition and manipulation: an exercise in self- and other-deception, and it serves no good scientific purpose nor ethical imperative.
It is instructive, in this context, to consider how the Indian official poverty line is fixed. What is described here is a broad methodological approach which does not concern itself with differences in detail across the procedures adopted by various expert groups appointed by the Indian Planning Commission. We have in these surveys information on the consumption of the population measured in money terms in different expenditure classes intervals of expenditure from low to high. We can obtain from the information on the food consumed in each of these classes, estimates of the calorie value of this food.
These estimates can be employed to obtain a picture of calorie consumption that typically increases as consumption spending itself rises.
How to write my family essay
The graph of calorie consumption as a function of consumption spending can be employed to read off the level of consumption expenditure per individual per day at which the nutritional norm is actually achieved. Thus, employing —74 data on the distributions of calorie consumption and consumption expenditure, and employing a calorific norm of 2, kilocalories per person per day for rural India and one of 2, kilocalories per person per day in urban India, the Expert Group of the Planning Commission stipulated a poverty line of Rs The consumption bundles that is, baskets of different consumer goods and services corresponding to these consumption expenditure levels can be identified, and the poverty lines for later or earlier years are obtained by simply revaluing these bundles at current prices.
Conventional economics tells us that consumers, in the light of their incomes and the prices facing them, do the best they can to arrive at their optimum consumption bundle. The official poverty line in India is derived from—in fact equated with—the value of the commodity bundle that corresponds to the calorific norm in — Why this special normative status for the year ? The underlying presumption strikes one, on reflection, as being nothing short of bizarre!
If consumers, instead, are seen as maximising utility in every year, and not only in —74, then a consistent way of fixing the poverty line in any year would be to read off the level of consumption expenditure at which the nutritional norm is realised in that year. This is precisely what the economist Utsa Patnaik 4 recommends. By refusing to allow for such changes, the official identification procedure also allows for a disturbing corollary fact. This is that as one moves forward in time, the calorie consumption at the official poverty line falls further and further short of the original nutritional norms in which the poverty line was grounded.
At the heart of these difficulties is the basic requirement of consistency in all measurement exercises. This is the requirement that the norm of measurement must be invariant in all contexts where the relevant measurement exercise is undertaken. What does one mean by this? Here is an example to illustrate the proposition. If the length of this blackboard is measured by a foot-rule, so must the length of that blackboard. And so with poverty standards. In what space must we preserve invariance of the poverty norm when we are measuring that phenomenon?
Poverty in India Essay - Words | Bartleby
What does it mean to say that poverty must be specified in an absolute way in the space of functionings? Suppose, for specificity, that the functioning is nutritional status. Then, we specify poverty in an absolute way when we simply say that avoiding nutritional deprivation requires a person to be well-nourished. This may require us to specify, in the space of resources , that the person should have adequate calorie intake in order to be judged to be free of nutritional deprivation.
For instance, if you are a pregnant and lactating woman and I am not, then you will require more calories and I will require less calories in the space of resources in order to achieve the same status of being well-nourished, a requirement that is specified absolutely in exactly the same way for both of us in the space of functionings. Consider another example. You may live in a cold country and I in a tropical country.
Arising from this, we can have variations in the amount of resources needed to achieve a given level of satisfactory human functioning. A great deal. Economists typically solve the identification problem by specifying the poverty line in the space of resources. The point is that when we specify some unique poverty standard in the space of resources, we do violence to the sensible notion that the norm ought to be specified absolutely in the space of functionings and—because of individual differences in the capacity to convert resources into functionings—in an interpersonally or inter-contextually relative or variable way in the space of resources.
This problem is an acute one, and accounts for the sort of widely differing estimates of poverty which we have seen are thrown up by official methods, on the one hand, and the method resorted to by economists such as Utsa Patnaik, on the other. Briefly, the identification problem, in much of mainstream practice, tends to preserve invariance of the poverty norm in the space of resources rather than of human functionings.
There is therefore a problem of logic involved here. The Government of India has presented strategies to alleviate poverty through subsidies and other. According to the Human Index of Development, India is classified as a developing country. Unlike other less developed countries, India has a developed industrial sector that has boomed in the past 30 years.
Hunger and Poverty
Out of the 1. Seventy-three percent of these individuals reside in rural areas. The livelihood. India: a land of high human capital, rich culture and a growing economy. Yet, is it, as the topic claims, a growing super power? It is this papers firm belief that India is a rising super power, and will, in a few short years, surpass the USA and China.
In this essay, I will explore the relevance of the above statement and evaluate how valid it is. This essays main argument is centred on the society and economy of India. In addition, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger should also be halved. The selected indicators are percentage of population living below poverty line and prevalence of underweight children. The welfare policies implemented by the government programs have not and are not yet able to meet the standards that will be beneficial in producing a healthy society.
The government of India and the citizens share different political ideologies concerning the economic infrastructure of their country.
Poverty in India Essay
The state level. Recently, a girl living in the Himalayas ended her life due to severe poverty. Poverty is one of the leading causes of death among people in developing countries. Poverty is defined by lack of the basic necessities to live such as food, water and shelter.
Poverty is caused by a variety of things including overpopulation, lack of education, environmental degradation. Global Majority E-Journal, Vol. This article reviews the linkage between poverty and the caste system in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It also discusses the situation of the so-called Dalits untouchables , which are typically considered to fall. Poverty in India Essay Words 10 Pages.
Poverty has been a serious and a long-lasting issue in India. India is set to become a global economic power in decades to come. The hype of this booming economy causes great socio-economic concerns for this country and is being ignored by the government. This paper will argue the recent rapid increases in population, growth of cities, the burgeoning economy and government corruption in India.
These factors all combine to create growing inequities in the provision of the basic needs of society; food, water, shelter, health care and education result in an increased gap between rich and poor in the country.